pdf kitap indir toplist ekle guncel blog
EditorS. Rilke 2007-2010, H. Freitag 2010, A.P. Sukhorukov 2012
Name acc. to:APGII
Herbar:list records    scans available    photo available    habitat photo available    
Synonym: Amaranthaceae
Description:Flowers unatractive, small.
Tax. Comments:The bounderies to the closely related Amaranthaceae are controversial discussed. Some Authors treatened both as a single family.
open map in a new windowtaxon distribution for   acc. to Geobotanical Regions of Mongolia by Grubov (1955)
genus: 25
species: 100
Habit (i)general appearance of a plant
Parasite status: (i)Is the plant a half- or full parasite?no parasite/saprophyte (i)Plant fully autonomous, leaves with chlorophyll
example: Most plants, Ranunculus

Water or terrestrial plant: (i)Where do the plants grow?terrestrial (i)Plant grows on dry land
example: Orostachys spinosa

Leaf (i)expanded, usually photosynthetic organ of a plant (including phylloclades)
Leaf development: (i)Structure and development of leaves.without green leaves (i)Plant at flowering time (some geophytes) or over its whole life (many parasites) with reduced leaves without chlorophyll
example: Colchicum, Cuscuta, a lot of parasites

Leaf arrangement: (i)Arrangement of leaves at the stem.opposite, opposite-decussate (i)Two leaves per node
example: Lamiaceae, e.g. Phlomis

alternate (i)One leaf per node; distiche: arranged in two vertical rows, equitant
example: Phragmites

Simple or divided leaves: (i)Are the leaves simple or completely divided in several parts? Blade of the leaf entire or (more or less) deeply dissected. Attention: There are various appearances of the leaf margin (from entire to toothed and lobed). Here, we ignore this and ask only for dissections that separate the leaf for more than one third of its length or width, whatever is smaller. Sometimes, it is difficult to tell apart compound leaves from a shoot system with simple leaves: look for stipulae and/or axillary buds at the ground of the leaves: if only some possess these structures, the others are most likely leaflets of a compound leaf.simple (i)Non-divided leaf, but margin may be incised nearly to the ground
Stipule: (i)Leaflets at the base of the petiole, these are smaller and of different shape.none (i)Without stipules
example: Euphorbia, Ericaceae s.l.

Leaf veination: (i)Arrangement of the main veins of a leaf.pinnate (i)One main vein, several side veins, sometimes inconspicuous
example: Cicerbita

Flower (i)reproductive portion of the plant, consisting of sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils
Flower appearance and pollination: (i)General appearance of the flower.not attractive, wind-pollinated or some water plants (i)Small, colourless or green flowers
example: Betula, grasslike plants: Carex, Setaria, Juncus

Flower colour: (i)Attention: assess colour of the most colourful parts of the flower, but not of the stamens; be aware of single plants with a mutation (mostly white) on flower colour.colourless (i)Dry membranous
greenish (i)petals absent or not distinctly different from colours of leaves, only stigmas (white) or anthers (yellow) may differ in color
example: Chenopodium, Triglochin

pink (i)Between red and white
example: Centaurium

Perianth arrangement: (i)Attention: in some plants, flowers may be dimorphic in different ways (dioecious or gynodioecious). If flowers vary, record the characters of the most showy flowers.simple, similar (i)Only one type of perianth leaves (tepals)
example: Tulipa

Diameter of flower: (i)Diameter of flower or flower head. from 5 mm to 10 mm (i)
example: Stellaria

Flower symmetry: (i)Symmetry of the perianth leaves. Attention: to assess this character, look on sepals, petals and stamens, but neglect carpels and ovary.radiary, regular (actinomorphic) (i)More than two axis of symmetry
example: Saxifraga: 5; Iris: 3

Flower form: (i)common forms of flowers ? Veronicasimple (flat) - Do not confuse with inflorescences as in some Asteraceae (i)Petals spread out, flower appearing flat
example: Mollugo, Trientalis, Pulsatilla, Saxifraga

Sepal number: (i)Number of sepal leaves (outer perianth leaves, calyx leaves, mostly greenish). Attention, this character applies only for flowers separated in sepals and petals, thus excluding most monocots. Be aware of the bracts (involucral leaves) of Asteraceae flowerheads, do not qualify these as sepals! Be also aware in Rosaceae is often an epicalyx developed, in this case count all parts.5 (i)
example: Polemonium

Sepal fusion: (i)To which degree are the sepal leaves connected? Attention, this character applies only for flowers separated in sepals and petals, thus excluding most monocots. Be aware of the bracts (involucral leaves) of Asteraceae flowerheads, do not qualify these as sepals!free (i)All leaves separate from each other
example: Geranium

Petal / Tepal number: (i)Number of petal leaves (inner perianth leaves, usually coloured).5 (i)
example: Potentilla

Petal / Tepal fusion: (i)To which degree are the petal leaves connected? Petals (i)all petal leaves separate from each other
example: Anthriscus

Spur: (i)A hollow, slender, sac-like appendage of the perianth leaves, storing spur (i)Flower without appendage
example: Peganum

Stamen number: (i)Attention: We ask for the reproductive organs of the flower dispersing pollen. Count only fully fertile stamens, not staminodia (e.g. Parnassia).5 (i)
example: Peucedanum

Stamen fusion: (i)To which degree are the stamens fused? Attention: Whereas the pollen sacs itself are often free., their stalks (filaments) may be fused. Here, we count them as fused if they are together over at least one thirth of their (i)Stamens with separate bases
example: Malus

Pistil number: (i)Number of pistils (female floral organs: style, if developed; stigma and carpels/ovary together build the pistil).2 (i)Two stigmas, often cleaved like a snakes tongue
example: Salvia, Arnica, Bupleurum, Bromus, Saxifraga, Veronica

3 (i)Three stigmas, usually in a triangle
example: Stellaria, Euphorbia, Campanula, Allium

5 (i)Five stigmas, usually in a whorl
example: Cerastium

Carpel number: (i)Number of carpels (carpel: forming a simple pistil or part of a compound pistil, modified leaf).2
Carpel fusion: (i)To which degree are the carpels (modified leaf forming simple pistil or part of a compound pistil) fused.fused (i)Carpels united into an ovary, only styles are free
example: Malus, Berberis

Style number: (i)Portion of the pistil connecting the stigma to the ovary.1
Ovary position: (i)For entirely or partly fused carpels, describe their position in relation to the insertion point of perianth leaves (best done by doing a longitudinal section of a flower).superior (hypogynous) (i)Base of carpels attached above insertion point of perianth leaves, carpels free or fused
example: Delphinium, Anemone

Root / shoot below ground (i)plant part below ground (in most cases), including below ground shoots, without leaves
Root type: (i)Organisation of the roots.allorhizous (i)Plant with a conspicuous tap root, one larger tap root with side roots
example: Dicotyledonae
inherited by order Caryophyllales: allorhizous