pdf kitap indir toplist ekle guncel blog
EditorN. Friesen 2012; A. Zemmrich & N. Friesen 2008
Name acc. to:APGII
Herbar:list records    scans available    photo available    habitat photo available    
Synonym: Liliaceae (p.p.) (acc. to Grubov 1988/2001)
Description:Bulbous herbs (geophytes) with a characteristic smell of onions. Leaves filiform, often terete and hollow. Flowers rather small, with petaloid tepals, basely often fused with filaments. Inflorescence umbellate, globose, contained in involucre of two persistent membranaceous bracts before expansion.
open map in a new windowtaxon distribution for   acc. to Geobotanical Regions of Mongolia by Grubov (1955)
genus: 1
species: 52
Habit (i)general appearance of a plant
Growth form: (i)Herb, shrub, tree or climber.herb (i)Herbaceous, erect plant, up to 2m high, mostly with a leafy shoot; if perennial, shoots die to the ground each season, shoots are not woody
example: Artemisia pectinata

Smell & Touch: (i)General appearance of the plant.odor (i)Plant with an obvious scent
Parasite status: (i)Is the plant a half- or full parasite?no parasite/saprophyte (i)Plant fully autonomous, leaves with chlorophyll
example: Most plants, Ranunculus

Water or terrestrial plant: (i)Where do the plants grow?terrestrial (i)Plant grows on dry land
example: Orostachys spinosa

Leaf (i)expanded, usually photosynthetic organ of a plant (including phylloclades)
Leaf arrangement: (i)Arrangement of leaves at the stem.basal rosette (i)Leaves positioned at the base of the stem; stem often without leaves, no visible internodes (but flowers often on erect stems, and these may have few leaves)
example: Limonium, Potentilla, Plantago; also used in Liliales with basaly crouwded leaves (Tofieldia, Zigadenus etc.)

Simple or divided leaves: (i)Are the leaves simple or completely divided in several parts? Blade of the leaf entire or (more or less) deeply dissected. Attention: There are various appearances of the leaf margin (from entire to toothed and lobed). Here, we ignore this and ask only for dissections that separate the leaf for more than one third of its length or width, whatever is smaller. Sometimes, it is difficult to tell apart compound leaves from a shoot system with simple leaves: look for stipulae and/or axillary buds at the ground of the leaves: if only some possess these structures, the others are most likely leaflets of a compound leaf.simple (i)Non-divided leaf, but margin may be incised nearly to the ground
Shape of blade: (i)Easy for simple leaves. In compound leaves use the general shape of leaflet. Always check the ground for largest leaves of a plant. To be worked out: how to handle pinnate leaves?linear incl.grasslike or oblong (i)Leaves more than two times longer than broad with more or less parallel margins; see character: stipule for ligula
example: Dracocephalum ruyschiana, Poaceae, Scutellaria scordifolia, Pinus

filiform (i)Leaves thread-like, at least more than ten times longer than broad
example: Potamogeton pectinatus, P. filiformis

Leaf apex: (i)Appearance of the tip of leaf resp. leaflets in compound leaves.rounded (i)With a round apex
example: Trifolium

obtuse (i)Sides coming together at the apex at an angle greater than 90 degrees
example: Fallopia convolvulus

Leaf margin: (i)Structure of leaf margin (or that of a leaflet in case of compound leaves). Attention: Here we ask for the leaf margin, defined as all those dissections that separate the leaf for less than one third of its length or width, whatever is smaller. To be worked out: how to handle margin of pinnate leaves?entire (i)Plain margin, not toothed
example: Iris

Stipule: (i)Leaflets at the base of the petiole, these are smaller and of different shape.none (i)Without stipules
example: Euphorbia, Ericaceae s.l.

Leaf colour upper side: (i)Shades of green on the leaf, upper (i)Clear green
example: Tribulus terrestris

Leaf colour lower side: (i)Shades of green on the leaf, lower (i)Clear green, in most species
example: Angelica decurrens

Leaf veination: (i)Arrangement of the main veins of a leaf.parallel (i)Most veins arranged parallel to the length of leaf, mostly no pronounced main vein (usually in elongate to linear leaves)
example: Most Monocotyledonae, Plantago, Veratrum, a lot of Caryophyllaceae looks like that.
inherited by order Asparagales: parallel
Flower (i)reproductive portion of the plant, consisting of sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils
Flower appearance and pollination: (i)General appearance of the flower.attractive, animal-pollinated (i)attractive and coloured flowers, mostly large, attracting surely animals
example: Trollius, Rosa, Chamaerhodos

Perianth arrangement: (i)Attention: in some plants, flowers may be dimorphic in different ways (dioecious or gynodioecious). If flowers vary, record the characters of the most showy flowers.simple, similar (i)Only one type of perianth leaves (tepals)
example: Tulipa

Diameter of flower: (i)Diameter of flower or flower head. to 5 mm (i)
example: Aruncus

from 5 mm to 10 mm (i)
example: Stellaria

Flower symmetry: (i)Symmetry of the perianth leaves. Attention: to assess this character, look on sepals, petals and stamens, but neglect carpels and ovary.radiary, regular (actinomorphic) (i)More than two axis of symmetry
example: Saxifraga: 5; Iris: 3

Flower form: (i)common forms of flowers ? Veronicasimple (flat) - Do not confuse with inflorescences as in some Asteraceae (i)Petals spread out, flower appearing flat
example: Mollugo, Trientalis, Pulsatilla, Saxifraga

Sepal number: (i)Number of sepal leaves (outer perianth leaves, calyx leaves, mostly greenish). Attention, this character applies only for flowers separated in sepals and petals, thus excluding most monocots. Be aware of the bracts (involucral leaves) of Asteraceae flowerheads, do not qualify these as sepals! Be also aware in Rosaceae is often an epicalyx developed, in this case count all parts.none or rudimentary (i)Hardly visible or absent, since perianth uniform
example: All monocots with uniform perianth, many Asteraceae and Apiaceae

Petal / Tepal number: (i)Number of petal leaves (inner perianth leaves, usually coloured).6 (i)
example: Allium, Lilium, Dactylorhiza

Petal / Tepal fusion: (i)To which degree are the petal leaves connected? Petals sympetalous.fused at base (i)petal leaves with a joint base, but fused over not more than 50% of the entire length
example: Myosotis, Pedicularis, Cortusa

Spur: (i)A hollow, slender, sac-like appendage of the perianth leaves, storing spur (i)Flower without appendage
example: Peganum

Stamen number: (i)Attention: We ask for the reproductive organs of the flower dispersing pollen. Count only fully fertile stamens, not staminodia (e.g. Parnassia).6 (i)
example: Veratrum, Smelowskia, Juncus

Stamen fusion: (i)To which degree are the stamens fused? Attention: Whereas the pollen sacs itself are often free., their stalks (filaments) may be fused. Here, we count them as fused if they are together over at least one thirth of their (i)Stamens with separate bases
example: Malus

fused with each other (i)All or most stamens fused with each other to a tube-like structure
example: Caragana, Petasites

Pistil number: (i)Number of pistils (female floral organs: style, if developed; stigma and carpels/ovary together build the pistil).1 (i)One carpel, but clearly one stigma
example: Pyrola, Primula, Alyssum

Carpel fusion: (i)To which degree are the carpels (modified leaf forming simple pistil or part of a compound pistil) fused.fused (i)Carpels united into an ovary, only styles are free
example: Malus, Berberis

Style number: (i)Portion of the pistil connecting the stigma to the ovary.1
Ovary position: (i)For entirely or partly fused carpels, describe their position in relation to the insertion point of perianth leaves (best done by doing a longitudinal section of a flower).superior (hypogynous) (i)Base of carpels attached above insertion point of perianth leaves, carpels free or fused
example: Delphinium, Anemone

Sex: (i)Distribution of male and female organs among flowers, only most commonly cases.bisexual, hermaphrodite (i)All or nearly all flowers of a plant with male and female parts
example: Haplophyllum, Chenopodium

Inflorescence (i)flowering part of a plant, describes the arrangement of the flowers on the flowering axis
Inflorescence: (i)Structure of the inflorescence.Flowers in inflorescence (i)No solitary flowers
Simple inflorescences (i)Flowers sessile on a main shoot or on short to long not branched side shoots
example: Polygonum bistorta

Appearance: (i)Outer look of the inflorescence.terminal (i)Inflorescence is the highest point of the plant and may consist of a single flower only
example: Cypripedium, Rhaponticum, Ligularia sibirica, Echinops

Inflorescence type: (i)Types of inflorescence. Attention: We here ask for the botanical nomenclature of inflorescences, which is sufficiently complicated. Tick only, if you are certain, or tick all inflorescence types that appear similar of these of the plant in question.umbel (i)Flowers on short to long, leafless stalks emerging from one point
example: Allium

Fruit (i)the seed bearing organ, with or without adnate parts; a ripened ovary and any other structures which are attached and ripen with it. Aggregate fruits are handled like simple fruits for determination.
Consistency: (i)Fleshy fruits or dry fruits, see dispersal adaptations for further classification.dry (i)With a dry outer shell, no fleshy parts, but seed (embryo) could be edible
Type of fruit: (i)Common fruit types (including pseudocarp).Solitary fruits (i)
capsule (i)Dry dehiscent fruit, releasing seeds by slits or holes.
example: Poppy, most Caryophyllaceae, Cerastium, a lot of Scrophulariaceae, Iris (oppened capsule looks like Delphinium), Zygophyllum - it is a very common fruit type

Dehiscent fruits (i)Fruits open along a longitudinale line (except silicula)
Opening of fruit: (i)Mode of dehiscence at maturity to release seeds.opening along dehiscent line (i)Opening along a preformed line
example: Vicia, Lathyrus: pods

opening / dehiscent (i)Dry? Fruits opening with different types
Size of fruit: (i)Size of the fruit including appendage. to 5 mm (i)
example: Halerpestes: many folicles forming dry nutlets

from 5 mm to 10 mm (i)
example: Silene: small capsule opening with teeth

Seed number: (i)Estimate the number of seeds per fruit, if recognizable seeds are in the fruit (in rare cases a fruit may contain one seeded nuts: rose hip, carex).2-6 (i)2-6 single seeds, well recognizable
example: Crataegus: few-seeded berry

Has hairs?:no hairs, glabrous
Shoot/Stem (i)a young stem or branch
Spines, thorns or prickles: (i)Shoot with conspicuous spines, thorns or prickles.absent (i)Stem glabrous or hairy, but never with spines, thornes or prickles
example: Gentiana barbata

Root / shoot below ground (i)plant part below ground (in most cases), including below ground shoots, without leaves
Root type: (i)Organisation of the roots.homorhizous (i)Many equal roots
example: Monocotyledonae
inherited by class: homorhizous
many equal roots (homorhizous or creeping rhizome) (i)Monocotyledons and dicotyledons with creeping rhizomes and roots of nearly equal diameter
example: Stipa

Storage in below-ground structures: (i)Rhizomes or bulbs.bulbs with roots on lower side (i)Leaves at the base of the plant form a bulb, containing one to many leaves
example: Lilium, Allium, Gagea

Plant Use
General Use:forage plant (i)This plant is known as forage plant (Johnson 2003)
medical plant