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Class:angiosperms
Group:dicotyledons
Order:Gentianales
Family:Apocynaceae
EditorS. Rilke, August 2010
Name acc. to:APGII
Herbar:list records    scans available    
Description:Subshrubs with latex. Petals fused at least at base; anthers adherent to pistil head (gynostegium), pistil head capitate. Fruit a pair of follicles connate at base, seeds with long pappus.
Tax. Comments:Recently Asclepiadaceae are often included to this large widespread family (Heywood 2007).
open map in a new windowtaxon distribution for   acc. to Geobotanical Regions of Mongolia by Grubov (1955)
genus: 2
species: 2
Habit (i)general appearance of a plant
Growth form: (i)Herb, shrub, tree or climber.shrub, subshrub or semishrub (i)Shrub, multi-stemmed, mostly (0.2) 0.5 - 5 m high, shoots woody up to the tip
example: Caragana leucophloea

Smell & Touch: (i)General appearance of the plant.abundant milky juice (latex) (i)Shoots and often leaves contain white or yellowish latex
example: Asclepiadaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lactuca tatarica

Parasite status: (i)Is the plant a half- or full parasite?no parasite/saprophyte (i)Plant fully autonomous, leaves with chlorophyll
example: Most plants, Ranunculus

Water or terrestrial plant: (i)Where do the plants grow?terrestrial (i)Plant grows on dry land
example: Orostachys spinosa

Leaf (i)expanded, usually photosynthetic organ of a plant (including phylloclades)
Leaf development: (i)Structure and development of leaves.with green leaves (i)Plant with green leaves
Leaf arrangement: (i)Arrangement of leaves at the stem.opposite, opposite-decussate (i)Two leaves per node
example: Lamiaceae, e.g. Phlomis

Simple or divided leaves: (i)Are the leaves simple or completely divided in several parts? Blade of the leaf entire or (more or less) deeply dissected. Attention: There are various appearances of the leaf margin (from entire to toothed and lobed). Here, we ignore this and ask only for dissections that separate the leaf for more than one third of its length or width, whatever is smaller. Sometimes, it is difficult to tell apart compound leaves from a shoot system with simple leaves: look for stipulae and/or axillary buds at the ground of the leaves: if only some possess these structures, the others are most likely leaflets of a compound leaf.simple (i)Non-divided leaf, but margin may be incised nearly to the ground
Leaf veination: (i)Arrangement of the main veins of a leaf.pinnate (i)One main vein, several side veins, sometimes inconspicuous
example: Cicerbita

Flower (i)reproductive portion of the plant, consisting of sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils
Flower appearance and pollination: (i)General appearance of the flower.attractive, animal-pollinated (i)attractive and coloured flowers, mostly large, attracting surely animals
example: Trollius, Rosa, Chamaerhodos

Perianth arrangement: (i)Attention: in some plants, flowers may be dimorphic in different ways (dioecious or gynodioecious). If flowers vary, record the characters of the most showy flowers.double, different (i)Two types of perianth leaves, differently coloured (sepals: outer periant leaves, usually greenish, and petals: inner perianth leaves, usually coloured)
example: Parnassia

Flower symmetry: (i)Symmetry of the perianth leaves. Attention: to assess this character, look on sepals, petals and stamens, but neglect carpels and ovary.radiary, regular (actinomorphic) (i)More than two axis of symmetry
example: Saxifraga: 5; Iris: 3

Flower form: (i)common forms of flowers ? Veronicacampanulate (i)Petals united to a bell-shaped corolla
Sepal number: (i)Number of sepal leaves (outer perianth leaves, calyx leaves, mostly greenish). Attention, this character applies only for flowers separated in sepals and petals, thus excluding most monocots. Be aware of the bracts (involucral leaves) of Asteraceae flowerheads, do not qualify these as sepals! Be also aware in Rosaceae is often an epicalyx developed, in this case count all parts.5 (i)
example: Polemonium

Petal / Tepal number: (i)Number of petal leaves (inner perianth leaves, usually coloured).5 (i)
example: Potentilla

Petal / Tepal fusion: (i)To which degree are the petal leaves connected? Petals sympetalous.fused (i)petal leaves united, only tips are free (gamopetalous, sympetalous)
example: Linnaea, Adenophora, Stellera

Spur: (i)A hollow, slender, sac-like appendage of the perianth leaves, storing nectar.no spur (i)Flower without appendage
example: Peganum

Stamen number: (i)Attention: We ask for the reproductive organs of the flower dispersing pollen. Count only fully fertile stamens, not staminodia (e.g. Parnassia).5 (i)
example: Peucedanum

Stamen fusion: (i)To which degree are the stamens fused? Attention: Whereas the pollen sacs itself are often free., their stalks (filaments) may be fused. Here, we count them as fused if they are together over at least one thirth of their length.fused with each other (i)All or most stamens fused with each other to a tube-like structure
example: Caragana, Petasites

Pistil number: (i)Number of pistils (female floral organs: style, if developed; stigma and carpels/ovary together build the pistil).1 (i)One carpel, but clearly one stigma
example: Pyrola, Primula, Alyssum

Style number: (i)Portion of the pistil connecting the stigma to the ovary.1
Stigma number per style: (i)Number of stigmas per style.1 (i)One stigma, sessile or with a developed style
Ovary position: (i)For entirely or partly fused carpels, describe their position in relation to the insertion point of perianth leaves (best done by doing a longitudinal section of a flower).superior (hypogynous) (i)Base of carpels attached above insertion point of perianth leaves, carpels free or fused
example: Delphinium, Anemone

Sex: (i)Distribution of male and female organs among flowers, only most commonly cases.bisexual, hermaphrodite (i)All or nearly all flowers of a plant with male and female parts
example: Haplophyllum, Chenopodium

Inflorescence (i)flowering part of a plant, describes the arrangement of the flowers on the flowering axis
Inflorescence: (i)Structure of the inflorescence.Flowers in inflorescence (i)No solitary flowers
Inflorescence type: (i)Types of inflorescence. Attention: We here ask for the botanical nomenclature of inflorescences, which is sufficiently complicated. Tick only, if you are certain, or tick all inflorescence types that appear similar of these of the plant in question.panicle (i)Branched, with flowers maturing from the bottom upwards
example: Phragmites

Fruit (i)the seed bearing organ, with or without adnate parts; a ripened ovary and any other structures which are attached and ripen with it. Aggregate fruits are handled like simple fruits for determination.
Type of fruit: (i)Common fruit types (including pseudocarp).Solitary fruits (i)
follicle (i)A pod arising from a single carpel, opening along a single side (the inner suture to which the seeds are attached)
Dehiscent fruits (i)Fruits open along a longitudinale line (except silicula)
Root / shoot below ground (i)plant part below ground (in most cases), including below ground shoots, without leaves
Root type: (i)Organisation of the roots.allorhizous (i)Plant with a conspicuous tap root, one larger tap root with side roots
example: Dicotyledonae
inherited by class: allorhizous