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Class:angiosperms
Group:monocotyledons
Order:Asparagales
Family:Orchidaceae
EditorS. Rilke, August 2012
Name acc. to:APGII
Herbar:list records    scans available    photo available    habitat photo available    
Description:Leaves alternate (spirally aranged) often aggregated at base. Flowers showy, strongly zygomorphic: one petal as prominent lipp; pollen aggregated into pollinia. Fruit a 3 parted capsule with many minuite seeds.
open map in a new windowtaxon distribution for   acc. to Geobotanical Regions of Mongolia by Grubov (1955)
genus: 19
species: 28
Habit (i)general appearance of a plant
Water or terrestrial plant: (i)Where do the plants grow?terrestrial (i)Plant grows on dry land
example: Orostachys spinosa

Leaf (i)expanded, usually photosynthetic organ of a plant (including phylloclades)
Leaf arrangement: (i)Arrangement of leaves at the stem.alternate (i)One leaf per node; distiche: arranged in two vertical rows, equitant
example: Phragmites

basal rosette (i)Leaves positioned at the base of the stem; stem often without leaves, no visible internodes (but flowers often on erect stems, and these may have few leaves)
example: Limonium, Potentilla, Plantago; also used in Liliales with basaly crouwded leaves (Tofieldia, Zigadenus etc.)

Simple or divided leaves: (i)Are the leaves simple or completely divided in several parts? Blade of the leaf entire or (more or less) deeply dissected. Attention: There are various appearances of the leaf margin (from entire to toothed and lobed). Here, we ignore this and ask only for dissections that separate the leaf for more than one third of its length or width, whatever is smaller. Sometimes, it is difficult to tell apart compound leaves from a shoot system with simple leaves: look for stipulae and/or axillary buds at the ground of the leaves: if only some possess these structures, the others are most likely leaflets of a compound leaf.simple (i)Non-divided leaf, but margin may be incised nearly to the ground
Leaf margin: (i)Structure of leaf margin (or that of a leaflet in case of compound leaves). Attention: Here we ask for the leaf margin, defined as all those dissections that separate the leaf for less than one third of its length or width, whatever is smaller. To be worked out: how to handle margin of pinnate leaves?entire (i)Plain margin, not toothed
example: Iris

Leaf veination: (i)Arrangement of the main veins of a leaf.parallel (i)Most veins arranged parallel to the length of leaf, mostly no pronounced main vein (usually in elongate to linear leaves)
example: Most Monocotyledonae, Plantago, Veratrum, a lot of Caryophyllaceae looks like that.
inherited by order Asparagales: parallel
Flower (i)reproductive portion of the plant, consisting of sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils
Flower appearance and pollination: (i)General appearance of the flower.attractive, animal-pollinated (i)attractive and coloured flowers, mostly large, attracting surely animals
example: Trollius, Rosa, Chamaerhodos

Perianth arrangement: (i)Attention: in some plants, flowers may be dimorphic in different ways (dioecious or gynodioecious). If flowers vary, record the characters of the most showy flowers.double, different (i)Two types of perianth leaves, differently coloured (sepals: outer periant leaves, usually greenish, and petals: inner perianth leaves, usually coloured)
example: Parnassia

Flower symmetry: (i)Symmetry of the perianth leaves. Attention: to assess this character, look on sepals, petals and stamens, but neglect carpels and ovary.zygomorphic (i)One axis of symmetry, monosymmetrical flowers
example: Pedicularis, Nepeta, Viola

Petal / Tepal number: (i)Number of petal leaves (inner perianth leaves, usually coloured).6 (i)
example: Allium, Lilium, Dactylorhiza

Petal / Tepal fusion: (i)To which degree are the petal leaves connected? Petals sympetalous.fused (i)petal leaves united, only tips are free (gamopetalous, sympetalous)
example: Linnaea, Adenophora, Stellera

Stamen number: (i)Attention: We ask for the reproductive organs of the flower dispersing pollen. Count only fully fertile stamens, not staminodia (e.g. Parnassia).1 (i)
example: Orchis

2 (i)
example: Cypripedium

Stamen fusion: (i)To which degree are the stamens fused? Attention: Whereas the pollen sacs itself are often free., their stalks (filaments) may be fused. Here, we count them as fused if they are together over at least one thirth of their length.fused with each other (i)All or most stamens fused with each other to a tube-like structure
example: Caragana, Petasites

Carpel fusion: (i)To which degree are the carpels (modified leaf forming simple pistil or part of a compound pistil) fused.fused (i)Carpels united into an ovary, only styles are free
example: Malus, Berberis

Style number: (i)Portion of the pistil connecting the stigma to the ovary.1
Ovary position: (i)For entirely or partly fused carpels, describe their position in relation to the insertion point of perianth leaves (best done by doing a longitudinal section of a flower).inferior (i)Ovary below the point where perianth leaves are inserted, always fused to an ovary
example: Vaccinum

Fruit (i)the seed bearing organ, with or without adnate parts; a ripened ovary and any other structures which are attached and ripen with it. Aggregate fruits are handled like simple fruits for determination.
Type of fruit: (i)Common fruit types (including pseudocarp).Solitary fruits (i)
capsule (i)Dry dehiscent fruit, releasing seeds by slits or holes.
example: Poppy, most Caryophyllaceae, Cerastium, a lot of Scrophulariaceae, Iris (oppened capsule looks like Delphinium), Zygophyllum - it is a very common fruit type

Dehiscent fruits (i)Fruits open along a longitudinale line (except silicula)
Seed number: (i)Estimate the number of seeds per fruit, if recognizable seeds are in the fruit (in rare cases a fruit may contain one seeded nuts: rose hip, carex).>50 (i)Innumerable, impossible to count (usually very fine seeds)
example: Papaver: many-seeded capsule, Hesperis: many-seeded siliqua

Root / shoot below ground (i)plant part below ground (in most cases), including below ground shoots, without leaves
Root type: (i)Organisation of the roots.homorhizous (i)Many equal roots
example: Monocotyledonae
inherited by class: homorhizous