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Description:Corolla with distinct tube and quadrilobate limp.
open map in a new windowtaxon distribution for Asperula  acc. to Geobotanical Regions of Mongolia by Grubov (1955)
species: 1
Habit (i)general appearance of a plant
Growth form: (i)Herb, shrub, tree or climber.herb (i)Herbaceous, erect plant, up to 2m high, mostly with a leafy shoot; if perennial, shoots die to the ground each season, shoots are not woody
example: Artemisia pectinata
inherited by family Rubiaceae: herb
Parasite status: (i)Is the plant a half- or full parasite?no parasite/saprophyte (i)Plant fully autonomous, leaves with chlorophyll
example: Most plants, Ranunculus
inherited by family Rubiaceae: no parasite/saprophyte
Water or terrestrial plant: (i)Where do the plants grow?terrestrial (i)Plant grows on dry land
example: Orostachys spinosa
inherited by family Rubiaceae: terrestrial
Leaf (i)expanded, usually photosynthetic organ of a plant (including phylloclades)
Leaf development: (i)Structure and development of leaves.with green leaves (i)Plant with green leaves inherited by family Rubiaceae: with green leaves
Leaf arrangement: (i)Arrangement of leaves at the stem.whorled or fascicled (i)Three or more leaves per node or leaves crowded.
example: Galium, Nitraria
inherited by family Rubiaceae: whorled or fascicled
Simple or divided leaves: (i)Are the leaves simple or completely divided in several parts? Blade of the leaf entire or (more or less) deeply dissected. Attention: There are various appearances of the leaf margin (from entire to toothed and lobed). Here, we ignore this and ask only for dissections that separate the leaf for more than one third of its length or width, whatever is smaller. Sometimes, it is difficult to tell apart compound leaves from a shoot system with simple leaves: look for stipulae and/or axillary buds at the ground of the leaves: if only some possess these structures, the others are most likely leaflets of a compound leaf.simple (i)Non-divided leaf, but margin may be incised nearly to the ground inherited by family Rubiaceae: simple
Leaf apex: (i)Appearance of the tip of leaf resp. leaflets in compound leaves.obtuse (i)Sides coming together at the apex at an angle greater than 90 degrees
example: Fallopia convolvulus
inherited by family Rubiaceae: obtuse
acuminate (i)Gradually tapering to a (sharp) point
example: Populus laurifolia?
inherited by family Rubiaceae: acuminate
Leaf margin: (i)Structure of leaf margin (or that of a leaflet in case of compound leaves). Attention: Here we ask for the leaf margin, defined as all those dissections that separate the leaf for less than one third of its length or width, whatever is smaller. To be worked out: how to handle margin of pinnate leaves?entire (i)Plain margin, not toothed
example: Iris
inherited by family Rubiaceae: entire
Stipule: (i)Leaflets at the base of the petiole, these are smaller and of different shape.pair (i)A pair of free stipulae
example: Lathyrus, Trifolium
inherited by family Rubiaceae: pair
Leaf veination: (i)Arrangement of the main veins of a leaf.pinnate (i)One main vein, several side veins, sometimes inconspicuous
example: Cicerbita
inherited by family Rubiaceae: pinnate
Flower (i)reproductive portion of the plant, consisting of sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils
Flower appearance and pollination: (i)General appearance of the flower.attractive, animal-pollinated (i)attractive and coloured flowers, mostly large, attracting surely animals
example: Trollius, Rosa, Chamaerhodos
inherited by family Rubiaceae: attractive, animal-pollinated
Flower colour: (i)Attention: assess colour of the most colourful parts of the flower, but not of the stamens; be aware of single plants with a mutation (mostly white) on flower colour.white (i)Most plants of the population white
example: Pleurospermum, Maianthemum

yellow to orange (i)Pale to golden yellow
example: Ranunculus, Crepis

pink (i)Between red and white
example: Centaurium

Perianth arrangement: (i)Attention: in some plants, flowers may be dimorphic in different ways (dioecious or gynodioecious). If flowers vary, record the characters of the most showy flowers.simple, similar (i)Only one type of perianth leaves (tepals)
example: Tulipa
inherited by family Rubiaceae: simple, similar
Diameter of flower: (i)Diameter of flower or flower head. from 5 mm to 10 mm (i)
example: Stellaria
inherited by family Rubiaceae:
Flower symmetry: (i)Symmetry of the perianth leaves. Attention: to assess this character, look on sepals, petals and stamens, but neglect carpels and ovary.radiary, regular (actinomorphic) (i)More than two axis of symmetry
example: Saxifraga: 5; Iris: 3
inherited by family Rubiaceae: radiary, regular (actinomorphic)
Flower form: (i)common forms of flowers ? Veronicatubular to funnel-shaped (i)Petals form a tube, are often partially united to a cylindrical corolla, often surrounded by a calyx inherited by family Rubiaceae: tubular to funnel-shaped
Petal / Tepal number: (i)Number of petal leaves (inner perianth leaves, usually coloured).4 (i)
example: Galium

Petal / Tepal fusion: (i)To which degree are the petal leaves connected? Petals sympetalous.fused (i)petal leaves united, only tips are free (gamopetalous, sympetalous)
example: Linnaea, Adenophora, Stellera
inherited by family Rubiaceae: fused
Spur: (i)A hollow, slender, sac-like appendage of the perianth leaves, storing spur (i)Flower without appendage
example: Peganum
inherited by family Rubiaceae: no spur
Stamen fusion: (i)To which degree are the stamens fused? Attention: Whereas the pollen sacs itself are often free., their stalks (filaments) may be fused. Here, we count them as fused if they are together over at least one thirth of their length.fused with a corolla (calyx in Thymelaeaceae) (i)Stamens with perianth leaves at least one third of the length of the filament
example: Orobanche, Salvia, Stellera
inherited by family Rubiaceae: fused with a corolla (calyx in Thymelaeaceae)
Carpel number: (i)Number of carpels (carpel: forming a simple pistil or part of a compound pistil, modified leaf).2 inherited by family Rubiaceae: 2
Carpel fusion: (i)To which degree are the carpels (modified leaf forming simple pistil or part of a compound pistil) fused.fused (i)Carpels united into an ovary, only styles are free
example: Malus, Berberis
inherited by family Rubiaceae: fused
Ovary position: (i)For entirely or partly fused carpels, describe their position in relation to the insertion point of perianth leaves (best done by doing a longitudinal section of a flower).inferior (i)Ovary below the point where perianth leaves are inserted, always fused to an ovary
example: Vaccinum
inherited by family Rubiaceae: inferior
Sex: (i)Distribution of male and female organs among flowers, only most commonly cases.bisexual, hermaphrodite (i)All or nearly all flowers of a plant with male and female parts
example: Haplophyllum, Chenopodium
inherited by family Rubiaceae: bisexual, hermaphrodite
Inflorescence (i)flowering part of a plant, describes the arrangement of the flowers on the flowering axis
Inflorescence: (i)Structure of the inflorescence.Flowers in inflorescence (i)No solitary flowers inherited by family Rubiaceae: Flowers in inflorescence
Compound inflorescences (i)Flowers on shoots of higher orders (complex branched)
example: Solidago
inherited by family Rubiaceae: Compound inflorescences
Appearance: (i)Outer look of the inflorescence.terminal (i)Inflorescence is the highest point of the plant and may consist of a single flower only
example: Cypripedium, Rhaponticum, Ligularia sibirica, Echinops
inherited by family Rubiaceae: terminal
Inflorescence type: (i)Types of inflorescence. Attention: We here ask for the botanical nomenclature of inflorescences, which is sufficiently complicated. Tick only, if you are certain, or tick all inflorescence types that appear similar of these of the plant in question.panicle (i)Branched, with flowers maturing from the bottom upwards
example: Phragmites
inherited by family Rubiaceae: panicle
Fruit (i)the seed bearing organ, with or without adnate parts; a ripened ovary and any other structures which are attached and ripen with it. Aggregate fruits are handled like simple fruits for determination.
Consistency: (i)Fleshy fruits or dry fruits, see dispersal adaptations for further classification.dry (i)With a dry outer shell, no fleshy parts, but seed (embryo) could be edible
Type of fruit: (i)Common fruit types (including pseudocarp).Indehiscent fruits
Solitary fruits (i)
nut or nutlet (i)Dry fruit with a single, hard stone inside (and usually a large often edible embryo)
Opening of fruit: (i)Mode of dehiscence at maturity to release seeds.not opening / indehiscent (i)Fruits remain closed at maturity and disperse with seeds inside
example: Corylus (nut), Vaccinium (berry)
inherited by family Rubiaceae: not opening / indehiscent
Size of fruit: (i)Size of the fruit including appendage. to 5 mm (i)
example: Halerpestes: many folicles forming dry nutlets
inherited by family Rubiaceae:
from 5 mm to 10 mm (i)
example: Silene: small capsule opening with teeth
inherited by family Rubiaceae:
Shoot/Stem (i)a young stem or branch
Spines, thorns or prickles: (i)Shoot with conspicuous spines, thorns or prickles.absent (i)Stem glabrous or hairy, but never with spines, thornes or prickles
example: Gentiana barbata
inherited by family Rubiaceae: absent
spines or thornes (i)Sharp pointed woody structure originating from the plant (thornes derived from a reduced branch, spines from leaves)
example: Prunus spinosa no in Mongolia
inherited by family Rubiaceae: spines or thornes
single (i)More or less scattered solitary spines
example: Grossularia acicularis
inherited by family Rubiaceae: single
Root / shoot below ground (i)plant part below ground (in most cases), including below ground shoots, without leaves
Root type: (i)Organisation of the roots.allorhizous (i)Plant with a conspicuous tap root, one larger tap root with side roots
example: Dicotyledonae
inherited by order Gentianales: allorhizous