|Scientific name:||Amaranthus retroflexus L.|
|Name acc. to:||Gubanov 1996|
|Link to Flora of China:||http://www.efloras.org/browse.aspx?flora_id=2&name_str=Amaranthus+retroflexus|
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|Habitat:||As weed in towns and settlements, inhabited areas, vegetable gardens, ruderal places, irrigation fields (Grubov 2001).|
|Habit (i)general appearance of a plant|
|Growth form: (i)Herb, shrub, tree or climber.||herb (i)Herbaceous, erect plant, up to 2m high, mostly with a leafy shoot; if perennial, shoots die to the ground each season, shoots are not woody|
example: Artemisia pectinata inherited by family Amaranthaceae: herb
|Parasite status: (i)Is the plant a half- or full parasite?||no parasite/saprophyte (i)Plant fully autonomous, leaves with chlorophyll|
example: Most plants, Ranunculus inherited by family Amaranthaceae: no parasite/saprophyte
|Water or terrestrial plant: (i)Where do the plants grow?||terrestrial (i)Plant grows on dry land|
example: Orostachys spinosa inherited by family Amaranthaceae: terrestrial
|Leaf (i)expanded, usually photosynthetic organ of a plant (including phylloclades)|
|Leaf development: (i)Structure and development of leaves.||with green leaves (i)Plant with green leaves inherited by family Amaranthaceae: with green leaves |
|Leaf arrangement: (i)Arrangement of leaves at the stem.||alternate (i)One leaf per node; distiche: arranged in two vertical rows, equitant|
example: Phragmites inherited by family Amaranthaceae: alternate
|Simple or divided leaves: (i)Are the leaves simple or completely divided in several parts? Blade of the leaf entire or (more or less) deeply dissected. Attention: There are various appearances of the leaf margin (from entire to toothed and lobed). Here, we ignore this and ask only for dissections that separate the leaf for more than one third of its length or width, whatever is smaller. Sometimes, it is difficult to tell apart compound leaves from a shoot system with simple leaves: look for stipulae and/or axillary buds at the ground of the leaves: if only some possess these structures, the others are most likely leaflets of a compound leaf.||simple (i)Non-divided leaf, but margin may be incised nearly to the ground inherited by family Amaranthaceae: simple |
|Leaf margin: (i)Structure of leaf margin (or that of a leaflet in case of compound leaves). Attention: Here we ask for the leaf margin, defined as all those dissections that separate the leaf for less than one third of its length or width, whatever is smaller. To be worked out: how to handle margin of pinnate leaves?||entire (i)Plain margin, not toothed|
example: Iris inherited by family Amaranthaceae: entire
|Petiole: (i)Leaf divided into stalk (petiole) and blade.||with (i)Leaves with petiole (stalk) inherited by family Amaranthaceae: with |
shorter than blade (i)Petiol shorter than leaf blade inherited by family Amaranthaceae: shorter than blade
as long as blade (i)Petiole as long as leaf blade inherited by family Amaranthaceae: as long as blade
|Stipule: (i)Leaflets at the base of the petiole, these are smaller and of different shape.||none (i)Without stipules|
example: Euphorbia, Ericaceae s.l. inherited by family Amaranthaceae: none
|Leaf veination: (i)Arrangement of the main veins of a leaf.||pinnate (i)One main vein, several side veins, sometimes inconspicuous|
example: Cicerbita inherited by family Amaranthaceae: pinnate
|Flower (i)reproductive portion of the plant, consisting of sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils|
|Flower appearance and pollination: (i)General appearance of the flower.||not attractive, wind-pollinated or some water plants (i)Small, colourless or green flowers|
example: Betula, grasslike plants: Carex, Setaria, Juncus inherited by family Amaranthaceae: not attractive, wind-pollinated or some water plants
|Flower colour: (i)Attention: assess colour of the most colourful parts of the flower, but not of the stamens; be aware of single plants with a mutation (mostly white) on flower colour.||colourless (i)Dry membranous inherited by family Amaranthaceae: colourless |
greenish (i)petals absent or not distinctly different from colours of leaves, only stigmas (white) or anthers (yellow) may differ in color
example: Chenopodium, Triglochin inherited by family Amaranthaceae: greenish
|Perianth arrangement: (i)Attention: in some plants, flowers may be dimorphic in different ways (dioecious or gynodioecious). If flowers vary, record the characters of the most showy flowers.||simple, similar (i)Only one type of perianth leaves (tepals)|
example: Tulipa inherited by family Amaranthaceae: simple, similar
|Flower symmetry: (i)Symmetry of the perianth leaves. Attention: to assess this character, look on sepals, petals and stamens, but neglect carpels and ovary.||radiary, regular (actinomorphic) (i)More than two axis of symmetry|
example: Saxifraga: 5; Iris: 3 inherited by family Amaranthaceae: radiary, regular (actinomorphic)
|Petal / Tepal fusion: (i)To which degree are the petal leaves connected? Petals sympetalous.||free (i)all petal leaves separate from each other|
example: Anthriscus inherited by family Amaranthaceae: free
|Spur: (i)A hollow, slender, sac-like appendage of the perianth leaves, storing nectar.||no spur (i)Flower without appendage|
example: Peganum inherited by family Amaranthaceae: no spur
|Stamen fusion: (i)To which degree are the stamens fused? Attention: Whereas the pollen sacs itself are often free., their stalks (filaments) may be fused. Here, we count them as fused if they are together over at least one thirth of their length.||free (i)Stamens with separate bases|
example: Malus inherited by family Amaranthaceae: free
|Ovary position: (i)For entirely or partly fused carpels, describe their position in relation to the insertion point of perianth leaves (best done by doing a longitudinal section of a flower).||superior (hypogynous) (i)Base of carpels attached above insertion point of perianth leaves, carpels free or fused|
example: Delphinium, Anemone inherited by family Amaranthaceae: superior (hypogynous)
|Inflorescence (i)flowering part of a plant, describes the arrangement of the flowers on the flowering axis|
|Inflorescence: (i)Structure of the inflorescence.||Flowers in inflorescence (i)No solitary flowers inherited by family Amaranthaceae: Flowers in inflorescence |
|Appearance: (i)Outer look of the inflorescence.||axillary (i)Usually several inflorescences in axillary shoots or single flowers in leaf axils, main shoot remains mostly leafy|
example: Tragopogon, Aconogonon inherited by family Amaranthaceae: axillary
|Inflorescence type: (i)Types of inflorescence. Attention: We here ask for the botanical nomenclature of inflorescences, which is sufficiently complicated. Tick only, if you are certain, or tick all inflorescence types that appear similar of these of the plant in question.||others (in traits_comments nicht aufgefÃ¼hrt) (i)Not as above|
example: Sparganium: globose capitate inherited by family Amaranthaceae: others (in traits_comments nicht aufgefÃ¼hrt)
|Fruit (i)the seed bearing organ, with or without adnate parts; a ripened ovary and any other structures which are attached and ripen with it. Aggregate fruits are handled like simple fruits for determination.|
|Type of fruit: (i)Common fruit types (including pseudocarp).||Solitary fruits (i) inherited by family Amaranthaceae: Solitary fruits |
capsule (i)Dry dehiscent fruit, releasing seeds by slits or holes.
example: Poppy, most Caryophyllaceae, Cerastium, a lot of Scrophulariaceae, Iris (oppened capsule looks like Delphinium), Zygophyllum - it is a very common fruit type inherited by family Amaranthaceae: capsule
Dehiscent fruits (i)Fruits open along a longitudinale line (except silicula) inherited by family Amaranthaceae: Dehiscent fruits
|Opening of fruit: (i)Mode of dehiscence at maturity to release seeds.||opening / dehiscent (i)Dry? Fruits opening with different types inherited by family Amaranthaceae: opening / dehiscent |
opening with lid (i)The seed capsule opens with a small cap or cover
example: Plantago, Hyoscyamus, Anagallis (but not in Mongolia) inherited by family Amaranthaceae: opening with lid
|Size of fruit: (i)Size of the fruit including appendage.|| from 5 mm to 10 mm (i)|
example: Silene: small capsule opening with teeth inherited by family Amaranthaceae:
|Root / shoot below ground (i)plant part below ground (in most cases), including below ground shoots, without leaves|
|Root type: (i)Organisation of the roots.||allorhizous (i)Plant with a conspicuous tap root, one larger tap root with side roots|
example: Dicotyledonae inherited by order Caryophyllales: allorhizous
|Distribution (i)region where the plant is likely to be found|
|Distribution (Veg. Zones): (i)acc. to Grubov 1952||Khentei (i)In distribution data often named as '2' |
Mongol-Daurian (i)In distribution data often named as '4'
Great Khingan (i)In distribution data often named as '5'
Middle Khalkha (i)In distribution data often named as '8'
East Mongolia (i)In distribution data often named as '9'
Depression of Great Lakes (i)In distribution data often named as '10'
East Gobi (i)In distribution data often named as '12'
Gobi-Altai (i)In distribution data often named as '13'
Dzungarian Gobi (i)In distribution data often named as '14'
Transaltai Gobi (i)In distribution data often named as '15'
acc. to: Gubanov 1996, Revushkin et al. 2001
|Medical Plant Use: (i)Only if plant is used as medical plant||Parts used: herb, seeds (i)Parts of Plants used in medicine|
Ingredients: leaves : betaine,fatty oil, seeds: fatty oil containing mainly oleic, linolic, palmitic acids (i)Medically effective ingredients
Use: The herb is used for treatment of ulcer, furuncle, malignant tumor, constipation, dyspepsia, evenomation, insect stings and snake bites. The seeds can be applied to treat eye diseases caused by bilious-hematic disorders,hypertension, hepatitis, dizziness, dazzle condition, corneal spot. (i)Medical use in eastern and western medicine
acc. to: Ligaa et al. 2009
|General Use:||medical plant|